The Pitfalls of Deploying a NextJS Frontend on AWS Amplify

Daan Debie / August 23, 2021

8 min read

Have you ever gone above and beyond to give a product a fair chance, only giving up way past your own sanity and patience? I did. The product was AWS Amplify

Let’s Build Something with NextJS

When I started developing the primary (web) UI for the product we’re building at Source, I quickly decided to use the NextJS framework as the basis for the frontend. One thing I really like about NextJS is that it does filesystem-based routing. Even though I like to diss on PHP as much as the next person, this particular feature of NextJS reminds me a bit of PHP in a good way.

Another very compelling feature of NextJS, is the ability to have different rendering strategies for each different page. You can decide to use:

  • Static generation for pages and content that rarely change. These pages get pre-rendered at build time and can be aggressively cached on a CDN. These pages can of-course still be highly dynamic by using client-side data fetching methods
  • Server-side rendering for pages that need to return different content on each request and/or for each different user
  • Incremental static regeneration, which is a variation on Static generation that will cache pages for a period you specify and then regenerate the pages server-side when they’re considered stale


This particular feature requires a specific hosting setup that supports the different flavours of rendering. You basically want:

  • a good CDN to cache and serve your static pages
  • a server-side solution to serve the server-side rendered pages and facilitate incremental static regeneration. This should also take care of API routes, should you use them

The NextJS documentation mentions a couple of options for deployment:

  1. Use Vercel. Vercel is the company behind NextJS. They offer a seamless experience where you can use any rendering method, and Vercel will deploy each part of your app in the right way. One neat thing they do is that they’ll convert your server-side rendered pages and API routes into serverless functions that they’ll deploy to edge locations all over the globe.
  2. Setup a NodeJS server somewhere for the server-side stuff and use a CDN manually to serve the static content.

At Source however, we’ve made a conscious decision to use AWS for all of our infrastructure needs. We’re too early in the lifecycle of both our product and company to consider a hybrid cloud setup and AWS offers all the features that we need for prices that are reasonable for now. Through one of our investors we also got a boat-load of AWS credits to get started, which helps.


I didn’t want to manually set up a hybrid deployment with NodeJS and CDN - which I could probably do using Cloudfront and ECS - so I looked for alternatives. AWS Amplify claims to be the

Fastest, easiest way to build mobile and web apps that scale

And they claim to support NextJS as well as server-side rendering by virtue of Lambda@Edge

Sounds great! So how does that all work?

Amplify - The Setup

The idea behind Amplify is that it lets you focus on building your app without having to worry about the infrastructure. This means that it will not only let you build and deploy your frontend easily, it will also let you hook-up backend components like authentication through Cognito, a GraphQL API using AppSync and a DataStore.

The way Amplify manages all of this, is through the idea of "backends". A backend contains one or more of the aforementioned components. You can setup different backend environments in Amplify and couple these to different (git) branches of your frontend.

Amplify - The Developer Experience

We are bringing our own database and API and wanted to use a pre-existing Cognito user pool. Amplify lets you import an existing Cognito user pool instead of creating one for you, and this worked fine… until I tried to create a second "backend environment" with a different Cognito user pool.

I want to allow different users on our development environment than our production environment. These environments correspond to the main branch in Git (production) and any other branches in Git (development).

How Do I Tie an Amplify Backend Environment to a Frontend Branch?

Interaction with Amplify is done through the web console or the Amplify CLI. According to the documentation, we can create a new Amplify backend environment like this:

amplify env add

But nowhere is it made clear how this is linked to our frontend branch. The Amplify CLI tries to mimic the git CLI by having amplify push and amplify pull. So I assume we need to push our new environment to the cloud. Does this command depend on the git branch I’m on? I don’t know. I could just as easily overwrite my existing backend environment when using this command.

Eventually I was able to create a main environment and a dev environment, but no matter how hard I tried, I could not get those environments to use different Cognito user pools.

How Do New Team Members Setup an Existing Project?

The Amplify CLI will create some configuration files, some of which you need to commit to git, and some of them you need to ignore. These files should make the build reproducible. It is unclear however, what a new developer needs to do to be able to run an existing Amplify project. The documentation mentions multiple Amplify CLI commands to setup a project:

amplify pull
amplify init
amplify configure project
amplify env checkout <my-env>

To be run in arbitrary order?

Three similar questions on StackOverflow give 3 different answers on this topic.

When I was on-boarding new team-members, we basically tried some commands in different order until we were able to run the project locally for that engineer.

How Do I Figure Out Why My Build Failed?

In short: you don’t. Or you enlist the help of AWS Support (which you will have to pay for). The Amplify web console doesn’t share detailed build logs, so you’ll have to fix your problems by trial and error.

Amplify - The Bugs

AWS Amplify seems to have quite some bugs. For example: when you use Gitlab, you cannot put the source code of your project in a sub-group. This will silently fail your build, with no clear error message in sight.

The aforementioned problem of using multiple Cognito user pools for different environments of one Amplify frontend, I also consider a bug.

Not having access to the actual build logs, I also consider a bug.

Amplify - No Help Included

The most painful issue I have with AWS Amplify - and AWS in general - is the complete lack of support. You are paying a lot of money for their services, but that does not come with any form of support, unless you pay extra. And when you make use of that paid support, it goes something like this:

  1. Contact AWS Business support through their website and try to explain your problem in a plain text field that you cannot resize or use formatting in
  2. Wait far longer than the promised 4 hours
  3. Get a response from someone telling you they’ll forward it to "the team" (why not have someone respond who can actually help you with your problem?)
  4. Get a canned response with a solution akin to "turn it off and on again"
  5. Tell them you have an actual problem
  6. Get forwarded to the next person who you have to clue in again on what your problem is
  7. Go to 2 and repeat

This means that in practice, AWS Amplify is not usable unless you are willing to pay extra for support and have a lot of patience.

As a side note, I find it really frustrating that with big corporations like Amazon in general, you quickly feel helpless and ignored when you have problems. Stories about Google customer support (or lack thereof) are rampant on Hacker News, and I think Amazon is no different. You’d think that with so much revenue they should be able to set up actual proper customer support 🙄

The Pattern with AWS

I think that these problems with Amplify are endemic of a larger problem with AWS: their PaaS and SaaS solutions suck. Aside from pricing (which is quite high compared to competitors like Digital Ocean), I think AWs’ infrastructure-as-a-service offerings are fine. If you want to have a bunch of servers (EC2), a database here and there (RDS) and some serverless functions (Lambda), AWS will serve you just fine.

But if you want something on top of that, like authentication (Cognito), or a PaaS solution like Amplify, be prepared for a sub-par offering compared to the competition. I think Amazon should focus on strengthening their core offerings instead of offering everything and the kitchen sink.

The Solution

In the end, I dropped Amplify and went with Vercel. $20/user/month is a small price to pay for actually being able to work on the product instead of fighting AWS services and support.

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